Water Dams are the essential and chief water reserves used for storing and saving. It is the need of an hour to retain water to a large extent which can be distributed to a different location especially in dry regions. These dams are the primary source of generating electricity .Here is a list of ten largest dams established all over the world:
1. Tucurui Dam, Brazil:
The Tucurui dam is the oldest dam in Brazil built across the Tocantins River. Its name has been taken from a small city that used to exist near this construction site. This dam has 24 power generating units which can generate 8370 MW of electricity. It is the largest hydro electricity power plant in Brazil which was developed for power and navigation purposes in upper and lower part of the river. The first phase construction of this dam started in 1975 and ended in 1984 and second phase started in 1998 and completed in 2010. This dam is 78 meters high and 6.9 kilometres in length. The establishment of dams attracted various migrants and also increases the cases of Malaria and AIDS.
9. Samara Dam, Russia:
Samara Dam is the largest dam located near Zhigulyovsk and Tolyatti on the central core of Volga River. It is also well known as Kuybyshev hydroelectric stations. The construction work started in 1950 and completed in 1957. It is an earth fill dam which is 2800 meters long and 52 meters high. It has two lane navigable locks with 980 meters high power plant house. The installed power capacity of this plant is 2315 MW with 10500 GWh electricity productions annually. The energy produced by this hydroelectric power plant is transferred through four 500 KV lines.
8. Syncrude Tailings, Canada:
This is an embankment dam built over Mildred Lake near Alberta in Canada. This dam is currently owned and maintained by a Syncrude Canada Ltd. Its construction began in 1978 and it is still under process. It is mainly an oil extraction company which extracts oil from Athabasca Oil Sands. This dam and Mildred Lake serves as a barrage for Syncrude for its ongoing process and operations related to oil extraction. This dam covers 11.3 miles of area in the northern part of Fort McMurray. Many other dams are also constructed near to this dam such as Southwest Sand Storage which has the largest storage capacity in Canada.
7.Yacyreta-A pipe, Argentina:
This dam has got its name from the island named Yacyreta . This dam was built over the famous waterfalls of Jasyreta-pipe between Argentina and Paraguay. The dam extends up to 808 meters and is able to generate 4050 MW power with its installed equipments. The maximum amount of water that can flow out of this dam is 55000 cubic meters per second from the eighteen gates. The machinery house which is being constructed on the coast is 70 meters high. The construction of this dam mainly affects the water inhabitants and population residing near the island. The ecological balance is adversely affected.
6. Ataturk Dam, Turkey:
Ataturk Dam was earlier known as Karababa Dam. It is the largest rock-filled dam built over the core of the Euphrates River. This is located on the border of Adiyaman and Anatolia Region of Turkey. The main purposes of constructing this dam lies in generating high amounts of electricity and provide irrigation facilities to the people. The work started in 1983 and completed in 1990. It is 1820 meters wide and 169 meters in height. The total power capacity of this plant is 2400 MW which can generate 8900 GWh electricity annually. It is a combination of four operational dams: Keban and Karakaya in upstream Birecik and Karkamis in downstream.
5. Verzasca Dam, Switzerland:
The Verzasca dam which was built in 1965 is commonly known as Contra Dam. It is located near Val Verzasca , Switzerland and is under control of company generating electricity named Verzasca SA. The dam is solely responsible for creating an artificial reservoir Lago DI Vogorno. This reservoir when fully filled sometimes result in earthquakes. This dam became a famous tourist spot after the shoot of James Bond film and a big ground site for Bungee Jumping. It is an arch dam with an elevation of about 220 meters and width if about 380 meters. This dam has concrete structure and is elliptically shaped.
4. Aswan Dam, Egypt:
Aswan Dam is situated in Egypt along the Nile River. It is actually a combination of two dams Aswan High Dam and Aswan Low Dam. It was built to overcome the problems faced by the people living along the riverside flowing from East Africa due to floods. The land nearer to the dam is fully fertile and the wiping out of fields due to flood is no more in existence. It has the capacity of storing 132 cubic kilometres of water and at maximum 11000 cubic meters can pass through it per second. Many big factories and industries has been set up near this dam which provides a big ground for fishing.
3. Fort Peck, Montana:
Fort Peck dam is one of the largest dams among six dams which is built over the Missouri river. The construction of dams started in 1933 and was completed in 1951. This dam was the result of some of the new deals and work done by Franklin D. Roosevelt , country’s President. This dam has five power generating units which have the capacity of generating 185,250 kilowatts power. It provides employment to 11000 unemployed workers at the time of its construction. This dam is only and only responsible for the admirable Fort Peck Lake. This dam was built in order to control floods, agricultural purpose and power generation.
2. Tarbela Dam, Pakistan:
Tarbela Dam is a well established dam constructed over the Indus River in Pakistan. It is also known as Pashto or Torabela. It extends from Hazara and Haripur district and also passes through Khyber pakhtunkhwa upto Islamabad. It is not the largest dam rather it is the only dam which is naturally filled with the earth. The water stored in this dam is mainly used for irrigation and for hydroelectric power generation along with the flood control. The dam is about 148m high above the Indus river and encompasses 250 square kilometres . This dam took a long time for its completion but finally completed in 1976.
1. Three gorges,China:
Three Gorges in China, is the largest dam in the world. It has a capacity of over 39,300,000,000 litres. The body of this dam was completed in the year 2006, spanning the river Yangtze. It is also an important site for hydroelectric power generation, with a capacity to generate 22,500 MW power. This dam is set in the vicinity of Sandouping town, which resulted in relocation of numerous villagers living in and around that area. The site of this dam is beautiful and absolutely eye-pleasing, but its construction lead to the displacement of millions of people and severely disturbed the ecological balance of that area. In 2012 it was estimated that the electricity generated by this dam is same as that of Itaipu Dam. Due to the elevation of this dam, the heights of mountains seem to be lower than their actual heights.