Agriculture is the most important activity in India. Many different verities of crops are grown all over India. Around two third of all the population residing in our country is indulged in farming and agriculture. The most important crops grown in India are listed below.
Cotton is a fiber crop which is soft and grows as a ball. India is thought to be the ones who started planting cotton for the first time. It is thought to be planted by the people of Indus Valley civilization. Cotton is made of cellulose. For the textile industry cotton is the most important raw material used. After America and Africa, India stands on the third position in the cultivation of cotton. Cotton plantation requires dry climate and it grows well in black soil. The rainfall should be very less and the climate must be very hot.th main cotton producing states in India are Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
Rubber can be grown in equatorial region. Rubber is manufactured from the emitted substance called latex of the plant. The climate required for the cultivation of rubber must be humid as well as moist. The temperature required for the plantation of rubber is twenty five degree Celsius. It requires a precipitation of around 200 cm annually. The main states in India where rubber plantation is prominent are Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Karnataka and Meghalaya. India stands on the fifth position in the rubber plantation in the world. Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in our country. It is used as a very important material in the industries for manufacturing of tires.
Tea plantation was first introduced in India by the British. It is one of the most important beverage crops. Most of the world plantation of Tea is done in India. Climate required for tea plantation is tropical and sub tropical climate. The soil required should be well drained soil which should be rich in organic matter as well as humus. The tender leaves of tree grow well in regular showers which should be distributed evenly all year round. Plantation of tree requires the availability of cheap and skilled labor. The major tea producing are Darjeeling, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura and Himachal Pradesh. Not only India produces the largest amount of Tea all over the world but it is also the largest exporter of tea in the world. Tea is grown in hot climate and requires a lot of rain throughout the year.
India produces approximately 4% of world’s coffee production. Indian coffee is famous worldwide for its fine quality. Arabica variety which has been brought from Yemen is produced in India which is famous for its taste, good quality and aroma and has a large market all around the world. Coffee is grown in the Southern states of India such as Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. A large amount of coffee produced is exported to various parts of the world. Coffee is produced on a large scale in the Nilgiri Mountains. Cultivation of coffee was first introduced on the Baba Bundan Hills and even today it is being cultivated there. Direct rays of sun is harmful for coffee plantation so big trees are planted and under them coffee plantation is done to protect it from sunlight.
Jute is also called as the golden crop or fiber. This is the most significant fiber that is grown in our country. Jute is used in the manufacturing of various items like bags, mats, and ropes. The soil required for the cultivation of this crop is well- drained fertile soil. They are specially grown in flood plains as the soil there is renewed each year. The major drawback in the plantation of jute is that it has a very high cost and hence it is being replaced by the synthetic fibers in the market. The temperature required for its plantation is around 24 to 35 degree Celsius. The major jute producing states in our country are Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal and Orissa. After Bangladesh jute is grown in the largest quantity in our country.
They are one of the most essential crops that have given a nutritional diet to many of the Indian vegetarians. They are highly prone to diseases and pests. India stands on the top in the cultivation of pulses in the whole world. India is not only the largest producer of pulses in the world but is also the largest consumer in the world too. For vegetarian pulses provide most of the protein. They are also known to give nitrogen to the soil in which they are planted. The main pulses that are planted in India are moong, urad, gram, peas, tur, masur. They are leguminous crops. They can be grown in dry climate as they require minimum moisture for their cultivation. The states in which pulses are produced the most in our country are Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
It is also among the most cultivated crop in India. The soil most suitable for the plantation of jowar is regur and alluvium soil. After the production of wheat most of the agricultural land in India is under wheat plantation. Wheat is mainly grown in parts of the country where there is a precipitation of less than 100 cm in a year. Among all the states, Maharashtra is the largest producer of this crop in our country. About fifty percent of the total jowar production is in Maharashtra. It can be grown in regions where the climate varies 26 to 33 degree Celsius. It is a Rabi crop planted in the months of October to February. It can also be grown in kharif season too. Other than Maharashtra jowar is also planted in states like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh as well as Tamil Nadu.
Maize is a Kharif crop. Maize can be cultivated in both rabbi and Kharif season but it is more suitable to grow Maize in the Kharif season. Maize is a staple food of people leaving in western and northern part of our country. The suitable climate for the plantation of this crop is dry and cold climate. Maize is also known as corn in many countries in the world. The total land under maize cultivation in our country is 5.7 million hectares. Every year six million tons of maize is cultivated in our country. The most dominant regions in India where maize is grown are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The soil suitable for the cultivation of this crop is sloppy fertile soil. The most undesirable soil for the cultivation of this crop is rocky soil.
After rice wheat is the most cultivated crop in India. Wheat is mainly grown in the northern part of the country and is the staple food of people in North India. The climate suitable for wheat plantation is low cold climate with medium precipitation. Wheat can be grown in very different types of soil but the best soil for its cultivation is loamy soil. Wheat can also be grown in Black soil. Wheat production in India has increased after the Green Revolution in our country. Green Revolution helped the farmers to get a better access to good seeds, fertile manure and an adequate water supply. Minimum rainfall required is 75 cm annually. Among all the states wheat is produces mainly in Uttar Pradesh in our country. Wheat is grown in the rabbi season. Wheat is used in the making of bread and different types of food items. The states in which wheat is produced in India are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
India is the second largest producer of rice. It is the most important food grain consumed all over the India. Of the entire agricultural field thirty four percent of the total field is occupied by rice plantation in our country. Among all the food crops forty two percentage is comprised by rice. There are many different verities of rice that are grown in India in different parts of the country. Production of rice has shaped the Indian economy very significantly. Rice is grown in areas which receive 125 cm of rain annually. In terms of production of white rice India stands on the first position and it contributes twenty percent of the total white rice grown in the world. The main regions where rice is grown in India are western shoreline areas, eastern shoreline areas, all primary delta regions, and Bihar, Assam plains, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.