Mathematics was born in 1900 B.C. Its first guardians were Babylonians and the Sumerians, who were inhabitants of the land we today know as Iraq. These were the peoples who laid down the foundation of Arthematics, Algebra, Geometry and many other aspect of mathematics. After the downfall of the Babylonians, the ownership of mathematics was then given into the hands of the Egyptians who nourished it with equal devotion and care. Moving on the next caretaker of mathematics were the Greeks; the land of Greece has bestowed the earth with so many marvelous, splendid and extra ordinary scientist, the history of these people is filled with so many philosophers, scientists and mathematicians. The Greeks modernized mathematics and gave it a new shape in the years 700 BC to 300 BC; they were the ones who actually brought the idea of a decimal number into the existence.
The next in line to the Greeks were the Hindus, they started to work on mathematics in the beginning centuries of A.D and then after a couple of centuries they passed on it to the Muslims who remained its owner for several centuries. Then ownership was given to the Europeans and is still under their possession, the Europeans were the one who made all the advancements in these fields in the 16th century. The most important thing to remember is that they are not the owners of mathematics but the caretakers. The real owners are those five nations who actually discovered and laid down the foundation of the phenomenon which today is known as the modern and advanced mathematics.
If we discuss the role and importance of mathematics in our lives, it is a never ending list. If we take a look around ourselves, each and every invention is an amalgamation and combination of chemistry and physics along with mathematics. The luxuries were enjoy today would not have been possible if mathematics were not brought to life. If we take a close look then it is not the subject which made all these miracles possible, but it is the knowledge, devotion and hard work of the people who dedicated and committed their entire lives to the subject. These are the people whose hard work gave a new life to this world, the greatest mathematicians of this world who discovered the secrets buried under the land with their wisdom. The ten greatest mathematicians of the world are:
This great mathematician was born in 780 A.D in Baghdad which is now in the territory of Iraq in the region of the Caliph Haroon Al-Rashid. Al-manun, the son of Haroon found an academy where Al-Khwarizmi worked as a translator, he converted books from Greek. He then started working on astronomy and algebra, his book “Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala” is a living proof of the intelligence and wisdom of this stupendous mathematician, his work helped a great deal in encountering the everyday technical problems; the word ‘algebra’ was actually a gift from him. His work revolved around the Natural numbers, linear and quadric equations, roots, squares and binomial, he actually introduced the Natural numbers. It is a well known fact that the Hindus were the one who invented the idea of zero but it was Al-Khwarizmi who primarily involved zero in his calculations. He was the mentor of algebra who died in 850 A.D.
9. G.F BERNHARD RIEMANN:
Georg friedrich Bernhard Riemann was a German mathematician; born in 1826 he was a student of Gauss, Weber, Klein and Einstein but he deeply adored and esteemed Dirichlets and followed his steps into mathematics. This dedicated scientist didn’t have a natural wisdom but all his intelligence was the aftermath of his hard work and dedication. He took interest in mathematics from his early age and soon rose to become one of the greatest mathematicians. His first lecture which was delivered on 10th June 1854 left everyone spell bounded; a portion of his lecture is what today in known as Riemann’s space and the second portion was based on the study involving the future of algebra, his research stunned everyone present at the occasion. He made research on the Zeta function (Euler’s work). His main area of interest was Topology and he removed many doubts from the study of aliphatic integral, he worked on dirichlet’s principle too. He wrote certain papers and did research in many other spheres of mathematics; his final work was however left unfinished which was later finished by Klein.
8. RENE’ DESCARTES:
Rene Descartes born 1650 was a French thinker and mathematician. His main area of work was geometry as he gave a shape to every equation in algebra, calculus or any other branch of mathematics; he acted as a bridge between algebra and geometry. The best thing about his work is that he didn’t believe in limits, he considered every possible solution for an equation. He was the counselor of the analytical geometry. He gave birth to the idea of Area of a substance and worked on tangents, he also produced some remarkable research on the refractive index.
7. Jules Henri Poincare:
Poincaré was a French engineer, theoretical physicist, mathematician, and a scientific philosopher. He is one the most innovational, stimulating and visionary mathematician of this world. This father of algebraic topology, has made advancements in periodic orbits and in differential calculus, he introduced the second law of thermodynamics. He laid down the Poincare’s juncture, a complex problem which no one could encounter for a century. He excelled in topology but he did work in many other departments of mathematics and physics.
Archimedes born 287 B.C was a Greek engineer, mathematician, physicist, astronomer and inventor; he made some breath taking and historical discoveries in mathematics. He discovered screw, liver, pulley, fulcrum and he invented a mirror, not a simple mirror but a weapon; you can spark a fire by focusing the sun’s rays through the mirror. He invented various weapons and machine through the combination of mathematics which played a vital role in the victories experienced by the Greek in wars. He calculated the value of pi, a constant which made the calculation of area and circumference of any sphere possible.
5. WILHELM LEIBNIZ:
Leibniz was German mathematician as well as a philosopher of the 17th century. He enjoys equal esteem as Newton, he started his career as lawyer but then his interest started increasing towards philosophy and he gradually got attracted towards the science, According to him there was always a possible explanation for every occurring. His area of interest was theology but then he enter into the zone of calculus as he brought into existence the concept of calculus, he actually invented calculus. He deeply studied the space, motion and certain other phenomenon’s and laid down the foundation of dynamics, he also worked on the binary system. His work was however not given much praise because the folks themselves were not of the caliber to comprehend his explanation, his topics he worked on were later given much importance but that was a century or so after his death.
4. ISAAC NEWTON:
Sir Isaac Newton is a legend, his work and dedication cannot be put into words; he was a mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, alchemist, theologian and physicist. He presented the three laws of motions; these three laws provided the base of physics. The also presented the law of gravity. His work is still a part of every invention.
Euclid was a Greek mathematician of the 300 BC from Alexandra, he is also known as the father of geometry. His work has been given a lot of respect till the 20th century. He worked on the conic sections, number theory, spherical geometry, rigor etc. it is due to the hard work of Euclid that today we have a field named geometry in mathematics. His master piece “element” was a global success. His work was succeeded by many of his pupils such as Eudoxus, Chios, theaetetus and theudius etc.
2. CARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS:
“The prince of mathematics”, this is what gauss is called; he was born in the year 1777 and he devoted himself to science at a very early stage. He made his first big discovery at the age of 19, when he proposed a way to construct a heptadecagon. He proved the theorem a+bi and represented his ideas regarding the natural number which are proved to be true. He introduced many laws which are still used today. He worked on differential theorem, Gaussian curvature and integral theorem.
He was a Swiss mathematician born in the beginning of the 18th century in year 1707. He is regarded as one the most successful mathematician of the history. He was the progenitor of mathematical notation. He introduced various constant such as “I” iota, Euler’s number and he also used e as the base of natural logarithm. The provided a way to find out the ratio of the circumference of the circle to its diameter. He provided various formulas for trigonometry and calculus. He introduced zeta function and plenty of other theorems. All the discovered that have been made up till not could not have been possible without Euler’s work